Charron DM, Chen J & Zheng G
Nanotechnology-Based Precision Tools for the Detection and Treatment of Cancer, 2015

Disease heterogeneity within and between patients necessitates a patient-focused approach to cancer treatment. This exigency forms the basis for the medical practice termed personalized medicine. An emerging, important component of personalized medicine is theranostics. Theranostics describes the co-delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents in a single formulation. Co-delivery enables non-invasive, real-time visualization of drug fate, including drug pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profiles and intratumoral accumulation. These technological advances assist drug development and ultimately may translate to improved treatment planning at the bedside. Nanocarriers are advantageous for theranostics as their size and versatility enables integration of multiple functional components in a single platform. This chapter focuses on recent developments in advanced lipid theranostic nanomedicine from the perspective of the “all-in-one” or the “one-for-all” approach. The design paradigm of “all-in-one” is the most common approach for assembling theranostic lipid nanoparticles, where the advantages of theranostics are achieved by combining multiple components that each possess a specific singular function for therapeutic activity or imaging contrast. We will review lipoprotein nanoparticles and liposomes as representatives of the “all-in-one” approach. Complementary to the “all-in-one” approach is the emerging paradigm of the “one-for-all” approach where nanoparticle components are intrinsically multifunctional. We will discuss the “one-for-all” approach using porphysomes as a representative “one-for-all” nanoparticle. We will further discuss how the concept of “one-for-all” might overcome the regulatory hurdles facing theranostic lipid nanomedicine.

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